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The lack of a universally accepted definition is a major barrier to develop significant tools to measure outcomes [36]. Amazon Rapids Fun stories for kids on the go.

Amazon Restaurants Food delivery from local restaurants. IMC should encourage a cross-functional planning and promote the company in toto. S chultz and Schultz consider that the planning, development and implementation of marketing programs should be approached in a different and new way [6].

The factors related to top management can be subdivided into the following: Likewise, the achievement of desired degree of integration will produce a number of effects on the effectiveness of marketing communication efforts, on brand equity and customer value. The level of implementation of IMC has a positive influence on brand purchase intentions.

Following the previous arguments, the following hypotheses are formulated: Finally, the validation and assessment of the proposed model will provide academic researchers with a wider and deeper comprehension of what is the role IMC plays in business management, its main antecedents and barriers as well as the most important benefits the organizations could obtain through its implementation. Besides the previous antecedents, the literature indicates other variables as internal factors of IMC: Explore the Home Gift Guide.

Undoubtedly, the lack of empirical justification of the proposed model is a limitation of this article. Moreover, Swain considered the need of including a set of outcomes related to the brand and the customer: Nevertheless, t he proposed model opens the way for future empirical researches on IMC by providing a conceptual framework and a better understanding of the role that Integrated Marketing Communication should play in contemporary business management, the main variables that determine or hinder its implementation, as well as the main benefits that it entails.


Traditionally the literature distinguishes between two types of communication tools: Finally, even when individual rewards and managerial actions do not hinder the implementation of a decision making model based on consensus, organizations may encourage departmentalization.

Assistant Professor of Marketing. Generally, we would expect that the organizations applying IMC will have a greater capacity to achieve its direct and indirect objectives, such as a higher brand knowledge and preference, a more favorable attitude towards the brand and the increase of purchase intention.

On the one hand, Beard [63] suggests that rigid organizational structures represent an important source of conflict and barriers for IMC implementation. However, some authors suggest that IMC should be considered as a philosophy whose implementation is situationally specific. Technological turbulence positively influences implementation of IMC programs.

Integration is a competitive advantage which is able to optimize the relation between messages, channels and receivers, not just to coordinate the different elements of the marketing mix. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 39 5: In the last few years, authors have developed the theory of IMC in order to direct, describe and explain the new practices [10].

Gould considered IMC as a controversial theoretical concept in terms of generalization of what it was and what it does. Low conducted one of the first researches supporting the relationship between IMC and brand performance, but the author notes that the results are difficult to explain [83]. The authors analyzed the evolution of communication and marketing theories by tracing their parallel shifts and showing the intersections between communication and marketing see Figure 1.


A centre-based structure of the organization negatively influences implementation of IMC programs. A concept of marketing communications planning that recognizes the added value of a comprehensive plan that evaluated the strategic role of a variety of makreting disciplines, e.

This paper attempts to provide a better understanding of Integrated Marketing Communications IMC by observing its performance in a context where there is little empirical evidence on this practice — upscale hotels. Journal of Advertising Research, 47 3: Schultz concludes that antecedents with a higher influence on integration are related to the organizational system [60]. The review allows the authors to formulate the research hypotheses and, finally, to model the driving-factors and effects of IMC.


Some significant differences are obtained according to the hotel profile i.

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The level of implementation of IMC leads favorable attitudes towards the brand. Nowadays, the continuous changes occurring in the field of Marketing Communications, are leading to an increasing relevance of research on IMC.

In comunicaciknes saturated market environment, characterized by an increasingly high competition, a new synergistic approach is needed and IMC represents an alternative approach that can replace traditional marketing approaches focused on schulhz as it is based on a consumer-oriented perspective and it is focused on a relationship marketing approach based on communication [8].

Moriarty affirms that cross-functional management abilities are a main barrier for IMC implementation [54]. Unfortunately, in some cases, the criteria chosen by the consumer to make such integration can harm sxhultz organization and associated brand value.

Nevertheless, the increasingly wider variety of communication and promotional tools together with the modern-day array of on- and off-line channels and media forms can widely disseminate messages.

The organizations that compete in a market characterized by an intense and turbulent competition may find important clmunicaciones in the strategic integration of brand communication to maximize the effects of the communication activities. Comunicaciones de Marketing Integradas Spanish Edition. Duncan and Mulhern suggest that IMC should be more strategic than executive and it must go beyond the promotional selling and advertising messages.

Journal of Marketing Communications18, forthcoming.