Teorija CPP: cestnoprometni predpisi: C, E, D – kat.: (za interno uporabo). Front Cover. Bojan Krajnc. B. Krajnc, – 89 pages. Index of /~slmurko/Teorija in vaje/ROM/Interaktivni raèunalniški teèaji/computing/ cpp. [ICO], Name · Last modified · Size · Description. [DIR], Parent Directory, -. Parent Directory, -. [TXT], BARCHART.C, Feb , K. [TXT], , Feb , K. [ ], , Feb , K.
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Typically a cursor is used for that purpose which points to the current element. However, queues provide access methods to put a data element at the end and to get the first data element first-in first-out FIFO behaviour.
You also hide the implementation details of this type in your implementation file. This handle is used in every provided procedure to uniquely identify the list in question. Teoorija with the next chapters additional features of object-orientation are introduced which makes object-oriented programming to cpl new programming technique. However, there is only one state per module and each module exists at most once in the whole program.
To enable usage of general procedures or groups of procedures also in other programs, they must be separately available. Instead of calling a procedure which we must provide with the correct list handle, we would directly send a message to the list object in question.
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The resulting module structure is therefore oriented on the operations rather than the actual data. We do not specify, pcp this handle is actually represented or even implemented. Since this example is just used to illustrate these concepts and problems it is neither complete nor optimal. Roughly speaking, we can distinguish the following learning curve of someone who learns program:. Thus, the flow of data can be illustrated as a hierarchical graph, a treeas shown in Fig.
Consequently, in cases of errors you can narrow your search to those places which are not proven to be correct. Singly cpl lists just provides access methods to append a new element to their end and to delete the element at the front.
All procedures now operate on this handle rather than a module global list. One could say that the defined operations specify the data to be used. You were right, if this would be all about object-orientation. The overall function of the list is always the same, whether we store apples, numbers, cars or even lists. However, the example implies some problems which we will outline cop.
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But what, if you need more than one list in one of your programs? This is a fundamental principle in software engineering, so let’s repeat it: You all know singly linked lists which use a very simple structure, consisting of elements which are strung together, as shown in Fig. You hide information of the actual implementation information hiding. Consider the following example which the compiler cannot check for correctness:.
Decoupling of data and operations leads usually to a structure based on the operations rather than the data: A code frame for this would look like this:. We can illustrate this as feorija in Fig. For example a queue can be structured like a singly linked list.
For example you might want to release allocated memory. The lifetime of a list is also defined by its scope, hence, it must be created once the scope is entered and destroyed once it is left. The calls to provided procedures remain the same. Therefore it would be nice to declare a new list with something like:.
Teorija CPP: cestnoprometni predpisi : (za interno uporabo) – Bojan Krajnc – Google Books
The main program directly operates on global data. Now a program can be viewed as a sequence of procedure calls. Object-oriented programming solves some of the problems teodija mentioned.
Now modules group data representations together. For example insertion might be done such that an order over the elements is achieved or not.
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Isn’t this just a more vpp modular programming technique? If you want to use a list within a procedure, say, foo you use the following code frame:. Consequently, there is no longer the need to explicitly call a creation or termination procedure.